Monday, December 5, 2022

International Conference on Infectious Diseases


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 Upcoming Event: 13th Edition of Infectious | 21-24 February 2023 | Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Tuesday, November 29, 2022

One year since the emergence of COVID-19 virus variant Omicron

 



International Conference on Infectious Diseases
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One year since the emergence of COVID-19 virus variant Omicron


It was 26 November 2021 that WHO declared that the world was facing a new variant of concern: Omicron. It would go on to change the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Emerging evidence was quickly shared by scientists from Botswana, Hong Kong and South Africa and discussed in a special meeting of WHO’s Technical Advisory Group for Virus Evolution (TAG-VE).

Experts at the meeting worried about the large number of mutations present in this variant, which differed greatly from the other variants that had been detected so far. Early data showed Omicron’s rapid spread in some provinces in South Africa and an increased risk of reinfection compared to the previously circulating variants.

Just hours later, WHO declared this new variant a variant of concern: we were dealing with something new, something different, and something that the world had to quickly prepare for.


Wednesday, November 23, 2022

Diphtheria vaccination




International Conference on Infectious Diseases
visit: infectious.pencis.com
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Diphtheria:


Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make toxin. It can lead to difficulty breathing, heart rhythm problems, and even death. CDC recommends vaccines for infants, children, teens, and adults to prevent diphtheria.

Causes and How It Spreads:

Causes:

Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make a toxin. It is the toxin that can cause people to get very sick.

Spread to others:

Diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person, usually through respiratory droplets, like from coughing or sneezing. People can also get sick from touching infected open sores or ulcers. Those at increased risk of getting sick include:People in the same household
People with a history of frequent, close contact with the patient
People directly exposed to secretions from the suspected infection site (e.g., mouth, skin) of the patient.


Signs and Symptoms:



The bacteria most commonly infect the respiratory system, which includes parts of the body involved in breathing. When the bacteria get into and attach to the lining of the respiratory system, it can cause:

Weakness
Sore throat
Mild fever
Swollen glands in the neck

The bacteria make a toxin that kills healthy tissues in the respiratory system. Within two to three days, the dead tissue forms a thick, gray coating that can build up in the throat or nose. Medical experts call this thick, gray coating a “pseudomembrane.” It can cover tissues in the nose, tonsils, voice box, and throat, making it very hard to breathe and swallow.

If the toxin gets into the blood stream, it can cause heart, nerve, and kidney damage.

Diagnosis:

Doctors usually decide if a person has diphtheria by looking for common signs and symptoms. They can swab the back of the throat or nose and test it for the bacteria that cause diphtheria. A doctor can also take a sample from an open sore or ulcer and try and grow the bacteria. If the bacteria grow and make the diphtheria toxin, the doctor can be sure a patient has diphtheria. However, it takes time to grow the bacteria, so it is important to start treatment right away if a doctor suspects respiratory diphtheria.

Treatment:

Diphtheria treatment involves:Using diphtheria antitoxin to stop the bacteria toxin from damaging the body. This treatment is very important for respiratory diphtheria infections, but it is rarely used for diphtheria skin infections.
Using antibiotics to kill and get rid of the bacteria. This is important for diphtheria infections in the respiratory system and on the skin and other parts of the body (e.g., eyes, blood).

People with diphtheria are usually no longer able to infect others 48 hours after they begin taking antibiotics. However, it is important to finish taking the full course of antibiotics to make sure the bacteria are completely removed from the body. After the patient finishes the full treatment, the doctor will run tests to make sure the bacteria are not in the patient’s body anymore.

Complications:

Complications from respiratory diphtheria may include:Airway blockage
Myocarditis (damage to the heart muscle)
Polyneuropathy (nerve damage)
Kidney failure

For some people, respiratory diphtheria can lead to death. Even with treatment, about 1 in 10 patients with respiratory diphtheria die. Without treatment, up to half of patients can die from the disease.

Vaccination:

In the United States, there are four vaccines used to prevent diphtheria: DTaP, Tdap, DT, and Td. Each of these vaccines prevents diphtheria and tetanus; DTaP and Tdap also help prevent pertussis (whooping cough).

Monday, November 14, 2022

Experimental mAbs show promise against Epstein-Barr virus



                               Experimental mAbs show promise against Epstein-Barr virus

International Conference on Infectious Diseases
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More Info:

Researchers find monoclonal antibodies provided nearly complete protection against EBV infection and lymphoma when tested in mice.

Researchers from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), in collaboration with researchers from Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US, investigated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting different sites of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). They were tested in human cells in a laboratory setting, with the results published in the journal Immunity.

The mAbs blocked infection in the human cells, and even one of the experimental mAbs provided nearly complete protection against EBV infection and lymphoma when tested in mice.

EBV is one of the most common human viruses. After an infection, the virus becomes dormant in the body but may reactivate in some cases.

It is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with certain cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma, and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. People with weakened immune systems are more likely than immunocompetent people, to develop severe symptoms and complications from EBV infection.

The researchers developed several investigational mAbs that targeted two key proteins: gH and gL. The two proteins facilitate EBV fusion with human cells and cause infection. When tested in the laboratory setting, the investigational mAbs prevented EBV infection of human B cells and epithelial cells,which line the throat at the initial site of EBV infection.

By analysing the structure of the mAbs and their two surface proteins using X-ray crystallography and advanced microscopy, the researchers identified multiple sites of vulnerability on the virus to target. When tested in mice, one of the experimental mAbs (mAb 769B10) provided almost complete protection against EBV infection when given. The mAb also protected all mice tested from EBV lymphoma.

Currently, there is no licensed vaccine to protect against the virus. Yet, the findings highlight viable EBV vaccine targets and the potential for experimental mAbs to be used alone or in combination to treat EBV infection in immunocompromised patients. The researchers note that they have planned further research with mAb 769B10.


Tuesday, November 8, 2022

International Conference on Infectious Diseases


 

                                      International Conference on Infectious Diseases

Infectious Conferences 2022| Upcoming Event| 12-14 Dec 2022| Submit Now 

International Conference on Infectious Diseases

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